Ensuring Consumer Safety in the Digital Age: Extending Strict Liability Product Regime to Emerging Technologies – The Consumer Protection Act 1987

With the ageing of The Consumer Protection Act 1987 and as technology continues to evolve and integrate further into our daily lives, it brings forth immense benefits and opportunities. From cutting-edge MedTech to self-driving vehicles, 3D printing, and sophisticated software applications, technological advancements are reshaping how we live, work, and interact. However, with these innovations come new challenges, particularly concerning product liability and consumer protection. The current legislative framework may not adequately address the potential risks and harms arising from emerging technologies. In this blog post, we explore the need to extend the strict liability product regime to cover all software and other technological developments and the importance of robust legislation to ensure consumer safety.

The Consumer Protection Act 1987 and Emerging Technologies

The Consumer Protection Act 1987 has been a cornerstone of consumer safety, providing protection against defective products. However, when it comes to software and related technological developments, there are notable gaps in the legislation. The Act was not designed to accommodate intangible products like software, which poses unique challenges in determining liability in case of harm.

One significant limitation is that software is typically not considered a “product” under the Act unless it is supplied in a tangible form, such as a physical disk or USB. Consequently, consumers harmed by defective software provided electronically (e.g., via online download) may not have a statutory product liability claim. This distinction seems arbitrary and potentially leaves consumers without adequate protection. While also causing uncertainty for manufacturers and insurers regarding their liabilities.

Addressing the Gaps: Extending Strict Liability to Software and Emerging Technologies

In light of the rapid technological advancements and the potential risks they pose, it is essential to review and reform the current product liability regime. The Law Commission can play a pivotal role in addressing these concerns and making recommendations to ensure that consumers are adequately protected in the digital age.

One potential solution is to extend the strict liability product regime to encompass all software and related technological developments. Strict liability would mean that manufacturers, developers, and suppliers are held responsible for any harm caused by their products, regardless of negligence. This approach would offer consumers greater assurance and a more straightforward path to seek compensation in case of injury or property damage resulting from defective software.

Benefits of Extending Strict Liability

Enhanced Consumer Protection. Extending strict liability to software and emerging technologies ensures that consumers have appropriate recourse in case of harm. This empowers consumers and encourages responsible practices among manufacturers and developers to prioritize safety.

Clarity for Businesses. A clear and consistent legislative framework provides businesses with a better understanding of their liabilities. Often leading to improved risk management and safer product development.

Encouraging Innovation. Striking a balance between innovation and safety is crucial. With an extended strict liability regime, businesses are incentivized to invest in research and development to create safer technologies.


As we embrace the transformative potential of emerging technologies, it is equally vital to prioritize consumer safety. The current legislative framework may not adequately address the unique challenges posed by software and related technological developments. Extending the strict liability product regime, will ensure consumers are protected and businesses are encouraged to innovate.

The Law Commission should review and propose necessary reforms to bridge the gaps in the current legislation. Together, we can create a safer digital landscape that fosters innovation and empowers consumers. And also one that establishes a balanced and responsible approach to emerging technologies.

Share this post

Let's work together

For a free initial consultation simply book an appointment via our meeting system by clicking below.

Eight (and a half) things that compliance and machinery safety consultants may not tell you... Knox Thomas

Eight (and a half) things that compliance and machinery safety consultants may not tell you…

Read more
EN ISO 12100 compliance - Knox Thomas

Challenging the necessity of citing EN ISO 12100

Read more
Product Design - Salsus Design & Knox Thomas

Salsus Design & Knox Thomas

Read more
Product Testing - Knox Thomas

Navigating Machinery Safety and Compliance Through Effective Product Testing

Read more